您的位置 首页 高考

【高考英语复习】现在完成进行时运用要点

时态语态是高中阶段的重要语法项目,往年高考语法填空中直接考查其形式、意义、使用,在完形填空、阅读理解中可帮助考生理解上下文,在书面表达中进行恰当、得体的语言输出。下面举例分析现在完…

时态语态是高中阶段的重要语法项目,往年高考语法填空中直接考查其形式、意义、使用,在完形填空、阅读理解中可帮助考生理解上下文,在书面表达中进行恰当、得体的语言输出。下面举例分析现在完成进行时的使用注意事项。

【例】The noise woke up the woman. She seemed to be in panic, and then reality dawned(显现). “Your child has been looking for an opportunity to climb out of the window,” the man said as he gave the child back to her. “So I have been watching the whole time.” The woman was astonished, and so was I.考生可看到划线的两个句子都使用了一种时态:现在完成进行时。那么现在完成进行时的定义和用法是什么呢?它与现在完成时和过去完成时有什么不同点呢?

下面的句子,考生要关注划线部分的时态语态:

1.Music has long been considered to be an enjoyable pastime for many people. (现在完成时的被动语态)

2.You have completed your full-time university studies.(现在完成时的主动语态)

3.If you do not receive any update within six months, it means that your application has not been successful.(现在完成时主动语态的否定形式)

4.When I saw the various supplies we had collected, it hit me that every kit we were to build that day would eventually be in the hands of an Iraqi child.(过去完成时的主动语态)

5.While making the kits, I realized that I had lost sight of the true meaning to get a good grade on. (过去完成时的主动语态)

6.Now that our project is over, I realize that I have affected not only one life, but ten.(现在完成时的主动语态)

一、现在完成进行时的形式、意义及使用

(一)形式

主语+助动词(have/has)+been+现在分词;非第三人称单数:主语+have been+现在分词;第三人称单数:主语+has been +现在分词。

1.肯定句:主语+have/has+been+现在分词

(1)I have been trying to find out her telephone number. 我一直在查问她的电话号码。

(2)They have been widening the road. 他们在拓宽这条路。

2.否定句:主语+have/has+not+been+现在分词

(1)I’ve not been feeling very well for the past few days. 这几天以来,我一直感到不太舒服。

(2)The washing machine hasn’t been working properly for two weeks. 洗衣机已有两个星期运作不正常了。

3.一般疑问句:Have/Has+主语+been+现在分词;回答方式:Yes,主语+have/has (been+现在分词),或No,主语+have/has+not (been+现在分词)。

(1)Have you been writing books for long? 你写书已经很长时间了吗?

(2)—Have you been working all day? 你们整日都在工作吗?

—Yes, we’ve been working for 8 hours without a break. 是,我们连续工作了8个小时没休息。

4.特殊疑问句:疑问代词/疑问副词+have/has+been+现在分词

(1)—You look dirty. What have you been doing? 你看上去很脏,干什么了?

—I’ve been cleaning the garage. 我一直在清扫车库。

(2)You’ve taken your time! What on earth have you been doing? 你可真够慢的!你到底一直在干什么?

(二)意义现在完成进行时表示一个从过去某时开始发生,一直持续到说话时刻,还在继续或可能继续下去的动作。

(三)使用

1.表示一个从过去某时开始发生,一直延续到说话时刻,还在继续或可能继续下去的动作

(1)The Chinese have been making paper for two thousand years. 中国有2000年的造纸历史。(造纸的动作还将继续下去)

(2)I have been learning English since three years ago. 三年以来我一直在学英语。(学英语的动作还将继续下去)

(3)Now that she is out of job, Lucy has been considering going back to school, but she hasn’t decided yet. 露西失业了,一直在考虑着重返校园,但还没决定。(露西还在考虑中)

(4)Aren’t you tired? You’ve been working here all day. 你不累吗?你都在这里干了一整天了。(可能还要继续干下去)

(5)We have been having fine weather for the past few days.过去几天来,天气一直很好。(好的天气可能还会继续下去)

2.表示一个动作从过去某时开始,一直持续到说话时刚刚结束(有时指出结果)

(1)I’ve just been waving good-bye to her. 我一直在向她挥手告别。

(2)They’ve been talking about the book. 他们一直在谈这本书。

(3)He is dead drunk. He has been drinking with his friends. 他酩酊大醉,刚才在同朋友们喝酒。

(4)My clothes are wet. I’ve been walking in the rain. 我的衣服湿了,我一直走在雨中。

(5)—Where have you been? 你去哪儿了?

—I’ve been watering my garden. 我去给花园浇水了。

3.表示某种感情色彩

(1)You have  been giving my everything. 你给了我一切。(感激)

(2)Too much have been happening these days. 这些日子发生的事情太多了。(多事之秋)

4.表示一个过去动作对现在的影响或造成的结果(相当于现在完成时)

(1)They have been living in this city for ten years.

They have lived in this city for ten years. 他们在这个城市已经住了10年了。

(2)I have been working here for five years.

I have worked here for five years. 我在这里已经工作五年了。

(3)The room stinks. Someone’s been smoking in here. 屋里有烟味,有人在这儿抽烟了。

(4)The girl’s eyes are red. She has been crying. 那女孩的眼睛红红的,她一直在哭。

(5)You have been working too hard. 你工作太辛苦了。(看上去很累)

5.表示重复

(1)We’ve been discussing the matter several times this year. 我们今年已数次讨论过那件事。

(2)We’ve all long been making mistakes like this. 我们一直在犯这样的错误。

(3)Has he been making trouble? 他是不是一直在制造麻烦?

(4)I’ve been writing the wrong name when I didn’t mean to. 尽管我非有意,却一直写错名字。

二、现在完成时和现在完成进行时

(一)现在完成时的动作已经完成,强调结果;现在完成进行时的动作往往仍在继续,强调动作。

1.I have read a novel. 我读了一本小说。(已经完成)

I have been reading the novel. 我一直在读这本小说。(可能仍在阅读)

2.I have written a letter. 我写了封信。(强调结果)

I have been writing a letter. 我一直在写信。(强调动作)

3.I have thought it over. 我已经考虑过这件事了。(已经完成)

I have been thinking it over. 我一直在考虑这件事。(可能仍在考虑中)

4.Jim has painted the door. 吉姆油漆了门。(油漆可能已干)

Be careful!Jim has been painting the door. 当心!吉姆一直在油漆门呢。(油漆尚未干)

【注】有少数动词,如work,study,live,teach,stay等,在表示持续一段时间时用这两种时态含义差不多,只是用现在完成进行时更强调动作的持续性。如:

How long have you worked (been working) here? 你在这儿工作多久了?

I’ve lived (been living) here since 2010. 自2010年以来我就一直住在这儿。

(二)表示状态的动词,如know,love,like,hate,think等,通常不用于现在完成进行时,但它们可以用于现在完成时。

(√)I have known him for years. 我认识他已经好几年了。

(×)I have been knowing…

(√)The war has lasted for a long time. 这场战争持续了很长时间。

(×)The war has been lasting…

(三)现在完成进行时不用于被动语态,若要用可用现在完成时的被动语态代替。如:

The house has been painted for a month. 这房子已漆了一个月。

The problem has been studied for five days. 这个问题已研究了五天。

三、过去时和现在完成进行时现在完成进行时不论动作或状态都与现在时间有联系,如果与现在时间没有联系,那就要用一般过去时或过去进行时,如:

He has been living in China for ten years. 他已在中国居住10年了。(他可能现在还住在中国,也可能刚刚离开中国)

He lived in China for ten years. 他在中国居住了10年。(他已经不在中国了)

—You look tired. 你看上去挺疲惫。

—Yes, I’ve been working non-stop all day. 是的,我已经马不停蹄地工作一天了。(现在可能刚刚结束工作,也可能还要继续干工作)

—You look tired. 你看上去挺疲惫。

—Yes, I was working non-stop until 8 o’clock. 是的,我马不停蹄地一直工作到8点。(到8点工作已结束)

四、实践与练习

1.—Excuse me, which movie are you waiting for?

—The new Star Wars. We ____ (wait) here for more than two hours.

2.Dashan, who ____ (learn) crosstalk, the Chinese comedic tradition, for decades, wants to mix it up with the Western stand-up tradition.

3.Marty ____(work) really hard on his book and he thinks he’ll have finished it by Friday.

4.—Where is Peter? I can’t find him anywhere.

—He went to the library after breakfast and ____(write) his essay there ever since.

5.Since the time humankind started gardening, we ____ (try) to make our environment more beautiful.

6.—Tony, why are your eyes red?

—I ____ (cut) up peppers for the last five minutes.

7.The girl has a great interest in sport and ____ (take) badminton classes twice a week over the last three years.

8.The manager ____ (tell) the workers how to improve the program since 9 a.m.

9.In order to find the missing child, villagers ____ (do) all they can over the past five hours.

10.Tom ____ (work) in the library every night over the last three months.

【参考答案】

1.have been waiting,本题的意思是“我们一直在这里等了两个多小时”,带有强烈的感情色彩。

2.has been learning,主人公一直学习相声,很有可能还要学习下去。

3.has been working,主人公一直致力于他的书籍,目前还没有完成。

4. has been writing,本题带有强烈的感情色彩,主人公一直在他的论文上进行创作。

5.have been trying,人类一直让环境美丽,而且会继续下去。

6.have been cutting,本题带有着强烈的感情色彩,主人公一直切辣椒五分钟,造成眼睛红了。

7.has been taking,主人公对体育感兴趣,一直上羽毛球课三年了,而且有可能继续下去。

8.has been telling,主人公自从上午9时一直告诫工人们如何发展项目。带有强烈的感情色彩。

9.have been doing,主人公为了找到丢失的孩子,在过去的五个小时里一直在尽全力,而且很有可能继续下去。

10.has been working,主人公在过去的三个月里一直在图书馆工作,而且有可能继续下去。

免责声明:文章内容不代表本站立场,本站不对其内容的真实性、完整性、准确性给予任何担保、暗示和承诺,仅供读者参考,文章版权归原作者所有。如本文内容影响到您的合法权益(内容、图片等),请及时联系本站,我们会及时删除处理。

作者: 环球教育网

为您推荐

临近高考 如何照顾好身体,调整好心态?

时间过的真快,不知不觉2022年高考临近了,关于高考,我们不仅仅要学好知识,还要照顾好我们的身体,调整好心态。如何照顾好...
2022年高考倒计时17天,家长和考生这样做,才能保持“平常心”!

2022年高考倒计时17天,家长和考生这样做,才能保持“平常心”!

还有17天,我们就要迎来高考了。考场上,每年都会有考生因紧张而影响正常发挥。在高考考场,考生该怎样调整心态,发挥出应有的...
@全体高考生!2022年各地高考防疫政策汇总来了

@全体高考生!2022年各地高考防疫政策汇总来了

还有不到3周,多地2022年高考就将拉开大幕。 近日,各地根据疫情形势,陆续发布高考防疫提示。滞留外地高考生如何返回考试...
教育部再次提醒:考生应14天前抵达高考注册地

教育部再次提醒:考生应14天前抵达高考注册地

考生应14天前抵达高考注册地 2022年高考在即,按照教育部、国家卫生健康委关于高考防疫工作的有关要求,各地已陆续向20...

如何让高考作文更加出彩?

高考作文只有40秒左右的阅卷时间,面对海量的作文考卷,阅卷老师是无法做到每一篇文章都逐字认真查看推敲的。要想使你的高考作...

发表评论

您的电子邮箱地址不会被公开。

返回顶部